Management of Sacrificed Animal-wastes

In 2009, about 4.5 million cows, 10 million goats, 82,000 buffaloes 0.3 million sheep were sacrificed during Eid-ul-Azha in Bangladesh. About 80% were slaughtered in the city and municipalities and more than one-third of the total were sacrificed in greater Dhaka city alone. According to the statement of Tannery Owners Association, this year in 2010 the number of sacrificed animals has increased significantly; may be double of last year. They also added that due to Anthrax-phobia the slaughter was less in last six months, as a result a big influx of cattle arose and thus the availability of cows was remarkable. Moreover, better security, easy transportation, smooth banking facility and fewer disturbances from the muggers, the Kurbani market was flourished.

Anyway, sacrificing animals provide a great opportunity for having rich food by the people, especially to the poor as one-third Buy Xenical Online of the meat has to distribute to them and another one-third to the relatives and neighbors. Eid-ul-Azha is the option for farming cows and goats in large scale, creating opportunity for earnings and self-employment especially in the rural areas. In the cities, there was better management of animal Haats and tool collection, and people were very happy this year. Kurbani Haats used to start from 7 to 8 days before the Eid day and it reaches at its climax in 2-3 days of Eid.

Refuses originate from the starting of the movement of animals: cows, goats, sheep, buffaloes and camels etc. with their feeds from the remote areas which may take 2-3 days’ journey to reach the city centers through traders’ chain and transports. On an average, a cow need 30-40 kg hay, green leaves, bran, and about 40-50 liter water. Extra water also needs for cleaning or washing them in the market. The wastes are: dung, urine, contaminated fodders and straws, remaining of leaves or branches etc. The big markets were in Gabtali, Sutrapur, Newmarket, Gulshan, Baridhara, Tongi, Uttara, Azampur, Rampore, Malibag, Wari, Postagola, Motijheel, Jatrabari and Lalbag etc., where huge quantity of garbage were left here and there.

On an average for a cow, the refuses may be 20 kg only in the market site.

After sacrificing, removing the skin, meat is distributed and the hoofs, horns, skull and jaws are left. Stomach or ruminal pouches and blood etc. used to bury in soil or discharge in the drains or water-bodies. Some recovery may be made from the linings of the stomach or gut. From a medium-sized cow of 200 kg, we get the followings:

Blood 5 Kg
Hide-skin: 30 Kg
Flesh/meat 40 Kg
Meat with bone 50 Kg
Horn/hoofs/Skull/Jaws 30 Kg
Dis-chargeable and water 45 Kg

Hide-skin is sold and processed in the tannery; hoofs, horns and bones etc. are also collected by the street urchins and they sell at Tk 20-25 per kg to the vendors. Bones, hoofs and horns are important raw materials for manure, bone meals, medicine, crafts, flutes, combs, gelatin and any other purposes but their industrial and business accountability is in dark. Bones and horns are the great sources of calcium and phosphorus. Green garbage like stomachic discharges, dung and blood can be used economically after proper recycling. Blood is an important source of nitrogen fertilizer, contains 12% N.

From the above, a 200 kg cow leaves (20+50) kg recyclable refuses. From a simple calculation, it reveals that, about 70,000 tons of green refuses can produce minimum 14,000 tons organic fertilizer from 1 million sacrificed cows only in Dhaka city, which may worth about Tk 28 million ( 2.8 Crore) estimating Tk. 2 per kg fertilizer. For agriculture, we need a large quantity of fertilizers and importing at the cost of foreign currency. But the city dwellers are wasting valuable green garbage just by discharging into then into the drains or water-bodies or for landfills. Can we ever imagine about these refuses which are the valuable biomass-nutrients coming from the rural areas? Rural land is losing nutrients and becoming infertile and less productive while here in the cities these high-value nutrients are dumping, and causing serious air and water pollution in the cities. It is not only in the Eid but everyday thousands of cows, goats, chicken and other animals are being slaughtered; the refuses are being dumped, who cares for the quantity, value, and environmental degradation?

It is of course manageable, it needs only proper planning and awareness.
• There must be specific rules for cleaning the Haats
• Community or locality-based slaughter centers should be organized; traditionally in many villages still this system exists
• All green garbage must be cleaned within 12 hours of slaughtering
• No blood should be allowed for burying or draining into the drains or water-bodies
• No biomass (straws, grasses, leaves or branches etc.) should be used or dumped for landfill but accelerated decomposition should be done for organic manure production
• Since biomass is the nutrients, they must go back to their origin for increasing the fertility of the soil.
• Collection, processing and usages of bones, horns, hoofs and teeth etc. must be accounted since these are high value substrates for many products.
• National policy for animal-waste processing for hide-skin, fur, feathers, bones, horns, hoofs, teeth and decomposable substances; their use, recycling, reprocessing and secondary utilization should be brought under the National Code and Practices.

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Director, CGEC International University of Business Agriculture and Technology Bangladesh

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